The surface area of North America is about 23 million km2. This region is comprised of three countries: Canada, the United States of America and Mexico; and three dependencies of European countries that occupy islands, of which Greenland (Denmark) is slightly larger than Mexico; the other two are Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) and Bermuda (United Kingdom).
The North American territory begins within the Arctic Circle and its extreme southern limit is the Suchiate River, which marks part of the border between Mexico and Guatemala. Its coastlines extend along the Arctic, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans.
The extreme north presents several geographic particularities: there is many islands that make up the polar archipelago; there is a large bay, Hudson Bay, which in turn houses James Bay; also, it can be mentioned that the coasts are so jagged that there are many entrances from the sea to the continent, as well as peninsulas.
The eastern region is a large area that extends from north to south from the island of Newfoundland in Canada to the Florida peninsula in the United States. This region, which runs parallel to the Atlantic coast, has numerous water resources, with two of the great lakes: the Erie and Ontario, as well as the St. Lawrence River. In terms of climate, we find areas of long winters to tropical places. As an important fact, it is worth mentioning that this is the richest and most industrialized area of the United States of America and one of the most developed in the world. Proof of this are the cities of Washington, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston.
The Canadian Shield It is a great plain formed by very old rocks; it covers most of the Canadian territory and a small portion to the north of the United States. It is outstanding the presence of very important lakes like the Superior, Michigan, and Huron -that form together with the Erie and the Ontario the region of the great lakes-, as well as the Winnipeg, of the Bears and of the Slaves.
The prairies and central plains It is an enormous territory, constituted of plains, that extends from northwest towards the southeast towards the Gulf of Mexico. It is definitely a profitable region for agricultural and livestock activities, thanks to the shape of the land and the presence of important rivers such as the Ohio, Tennessee and Arkansas, as well as the great Missouri-Mississippi, among others, which allow for large irrigation systems.
Western Cordillera As its name indicates, this is a rugged region whose main feature is the presence of the Rocky Mountains, which extends parallel to the Pacific coast, from the Alaskan peninsula, where it reaches the highest elevation with Mount McKinley of 6,191 m of altitude, to Mexican territory. The Rocky Mountains are divided into two branches: the Rocky Mountains themselves, which is the widest and most rugged mountain massif, and corresponds to the one that goes into Mexico. The other is the one that is closer to the coast and starts from the Aleutian Islands archipelago near Alaska, to the Baja California peninsula in the Mexican Republic. Along its route it receives different local names: Sierra of Alaska; Coastal Canada; Cascades; Nevada; Coastal California and San Pedro Mártir. Between both branches are located several plateaus such as the Frazer (Canada) and Columbia (United States), as well as the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.
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